Full text of "Acorn"
"We have nothing to (ear for the
iture except as we shal
way the Lord has led ui
Acorn Publications 1976
Table of Contents
Black Adventism in Retrospect
Wilbur Young. Mari-Edi Hayes
Ring With The Harmony Of Liberty.
Loud As The
UNTSVILLE ALABAMA 35806
OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
Since 1896, Oakwood has been serving Christ, the church, the nation, and the
world through education. Its principle objective continues to be that of training
and producing black SDA christian leaders for the service of the church and
around the world, for the redemption of men and the transformation of society.
It attempts to fulfill its distinctive role and mission by providing qualified young
people with a first rate liberal arts education, offering the bachelor's degree in
thirteen areas of study.
At Oakwood a sharp distinction is made between the imparting of knowledge to
the mind, and education which involves shaping the whole being-body, mind and
character. Oakwood neither compromises its commitment to academic excellence
nor separates education apart from Divine revelation-the true source of knowledge.
It strives for highest academic objectives in conjunction with a vital relationship
and experience with Jesus Christ. The Bible is taught without apolog\- as the
inspired and infallible word of God, thus giving a solid religious base.
Because of its religious and academic traditions, Oakwood has achieved a position
of strength, a real force for leadership among religious colleges. The story o:"
Oakwood graduates is a story of leadership and service. They are now found
serving around the world.
At Oakwood College the student is the central element; he is our reason for
existence, the object of the entire program, the focus of the total effort.
Oakwood believes that student centerness enables the students to find self-identity ,
self reliance and self-fulfillment during the course of thiCir college career.
The college constantly seeks to enrich the quality of its service to the student.
This means the stengthening of the present areas of study, the adding of new and
essential areas, and the providing of adequate facilities as called for by the
quality and nature of instruction undertaken. This tlirough the years lias required
financial outlay and human sacrifice on the part of administration, faculty, students
and constituency, and will continue to do so.
The achievement of the college through its dedicated graduates has amply
justified the outlay in money and human effort. Oakwood has done and continues
to do her noble work in a noble way. May every success attend !ier as she
courageously presses on in the accomplishment of her heaven-ordained role.
flk ^ "▼ ^JM\,
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Elder W.W. Fordham is the major editorial consultant for the research material that
appears in this section on Black Adventism in retrospect.
This is an early baptism.
In 1894 there were approximately fifty colored Seventh-day Ad-
ventists in the United States. The work began to develop under the
strong evangehstic preaching of such men as L. Shaefe, John
Manns, Sidney Scott, J. Humphrey, J. Lawrence, G. Peters, M.
Strachan, T. Buckner and M. Nunez.
In 1909 the membership had reached nine hundred, and in order
to advance the work, a different form of organization had to be in-
troduced. Consequently, at the General Conference Session in
1909 the North American Negro Department was organized, and
W.H. Green was elected as the first secretary of the department.
Elder A.G. Daniels, president of the General Conference, gave the
following explanation as the basis for the creation of this depart-
ment: "I believe that under this direct effort, we shall see the work
in behalf of the colored people of this country go forward with
greater success than we have ever seen it before. The department
will have a secretary, an executive committee, the same as the other
departments, and on this committee there will be a fair representa-
tion of the field. The committee will then meet and plan its work,
and outline its policy for the future the same as do the other de-
partment committees. Their work will be to carry forward the evan-
gehcal work among the colored people. They will take up the quest
of mission schools, church schools, and the higher schools such as
Huntsville, and will look after them. They will look after the pub-
hshing hterature as will be best adapted to the people. In fact, they
will take into consideration all branches of the work."
The first meeting of the North American Negro Department of
the General Conference was held at Oakwood Manual Training
School in Huntsville, Alabama, September 28, 1909. Black leaders
at that meeting were: W. Green, D. Blake, M. Strachan, T. Branch,
Sidney Scott, Thomas Murphy, W. Sebastian. On Wednesday, Sep-
tember 29, it was voted that the headquarters of the North Ameri-
can Department be located in Huntsville, Alabama.
In 1918 the membership among America's greatest minority had
reached 3,000 and at the General Conference Session, the first
black ever elected to the General Conference Staff was W.H.
Green, a former lawyer who had argued many cases before the Su-
preme Court of the United States. However, even though he was
elected as the first black member of the General Conference, due
to racial segregation in the United States, as well as in the church,
it was impossible for him to carry out his duties from the General
In 1927 there was a joint committee meeting of the Southeastern,
Southern and Southwestern Unions' black leaders, which was hejd
in Nashville, Tennessee. This was the first effort in the Southland
to recx)gnize black leadership. At this meeting, Elder McElhaney,
President of the General Conference, was present and recom-
mended that the Union should separate and formulate specific ac-
tions that could be voted upon.
It was voted unanimously by the black leaders that the name of
all three Unions be changed to read "The Colored Department"
There was also quite a discussion as to the title of the leading min-
isters for the colored work; the names of evangelists, secretaries,
and superintendents were discussed. After considering the names
and responsibilities from most every angle, it was finally voted
unanimously by standing that the title for the leading minister of
the colored department of the Union and each local conference be
evangelist, and that he would carry the secretarial work of the col-
"We recommend the adoption and principle of the recommenda-
tions regarding the organization of the colored work as passed by
the General Conference of 1926, adapting them to fit the condi-
tions of the three Southern Unions, recognizing the need of stress-
ing evangelism in our fields for the colored population, and in view
of the tact that our resources both in men and money are very lim-
ited, and beheving that the life and growth of our work among our
colored behevers depends upon emphasizing evangelism; there-
fore, RESOLVED, that we urge our colored laborer^ lo u^e iheir
utmost efforts to carry the message lo all colored people. Then,
adapting the plan of our colored departmental work in our union
and local conferences as suggested by the General Conference res-
olution in Milwaukee, the work of the union and local departmen-
tal committee be to study and provide for the needs ol' the work tor
the colored people in harmony with established policy. When ne\\
policies are suggested, they must be brought before the Executive
Committee that the work of the said union or local conference
evangelist be outlined and directed by the president and committee
of the respective conferences the same as other laborers: that \ve
recognize the work of any other department to be the same as it is
understood to be the work of anv other department: that lull coun-
sel be had with our colored laborers in planning their work, it being
distinctly understood that the union of local cont'erence evangelist
has no administrative authority. We recommend that the General
Conference recommendation No SO. a> appears m the Review tt
Herald of June 14, 1926. p. 5. shall be understood to applv to col-
ored departmental work, and to be earned out onK as finances per-
mit, and the recommendation referred lo read>: "uhere the devel-
oping and better prosecution of the \'.ork lor our people requires
better attention, there should be appointed such assistant secretar-
Early picture of Pittsburgh congregation
ies and helpers of the various departments of the several union
conferences in the South as are required to look after and care for
the development of the colored work.' "
Now the irony of this whole situation is the fact that many of
these recommendations relative to the organization were never
fully impleted. In 1929 at the Fall Council held in Columbus, OH
the first major recommendation relative to the organization of the
black work in the North was voted, referring to the minutes of that
Recommended: (1) That in each union conference where there
are as many as five colored believers, except in the Southeastern,
Southern and Southwestern, a Negro secretary be elected, the sec-
retary to be a member of the union conference committee. (2) That
the union secretary together with the secretaries of the South-
eastern, Southern and Southwestern Union Conferences be invited
to attend such Autumn Councils as the local conference presidents
may be called to attend; thus, they would receive the encour-
agement to be gained by contract with the leaders of our world
wide work, and would carry it back to the colored churches in their
fields, the appeals on all our activities throughout the field the
world around. (3) That these secretaries together with the union
secretaries together with the union secretaries of the Southeast,
Southern and Southwestern Unions, and such other persons that
the General Conference may appoint, would form the General
Conference Negro Department Advisory Committee. This Com-
mittee will counsel over matters pertaining to the colored work,
and at this Annual Council the primary responsibilities of these
secretaries were outlined as follows: (1) Holding evangelistic efforts
when advisable. (2) By assisting evangelists with the efforts when
advisable. (3) By helping to train young preachers and workers. (4)
By helping to foster real soul-winning work in each of the churches
and conferences. (5) By cooperaUng in all lines of departmental
and church acUvities and (6) That where the colored constituency
in a local conference is sufficiently strong, and is represented by a
colored minister of experience, we recommend that he be made a
member of the local conference committee.
Now this more or less appUed to the Negro constituency in the
Northern sections of our country. At this Annual Conference, con-
sideration was given to the previous recommendations that were
made by the joint committees of the Southern, Southeastern, and
Southwestern Unions which met in 1827, and these were among
the actions which were approved: .... (1) That the Negro Com-
mittee of the local conference be composed as follows: the presi-
dent of the conference, the secretary-treasurer of the conference,
Church Choir of Minneapoli
the colored evangelist of the conference, and two Negro members
to be elected. (2) We recommend that in conferences receiving ap-
propriations for their colored work the proportionate share of local
conference administration expense be on a ratio of one third to the
colored and two thirds to the white work, this calculation to be
based on practically equal constituency of white and colored mem-
bership, and where the proportion of constituency varies from that
of equality, either up or down, the proportion of administrative ex-
pense be carried on the same ratio, up or down."
The first black person elected to the General Conference was El-
der W.H. Green, and he served from 1918 until his rather sudden
death in 1928. In 1929, G.E. Peters, one of the most outstanding
black pioneers of this church and one of the most progressive lead-
ers that we have ever had, was elected to the office. In 1930, under
his leadership, the following recommendations were made at the
time of the General Conference Session, June 12, 1930, in San
Francisco: (1) That the General Conference Committee select one
of our representative colored ministers to fill the office of secretary
of the Negro Department, that this secretary be located in Wash-
ington, having his headquarters at the General Conference office;
that in giving general supervision to the colored work throughout
North America he'd work under the counsel of the General Con-
ference Committee as do all other General Conference departmen-
tal secretaries. Then, again, there was the reiteration of actions that
had been previously taken concerning the organization of the col-
ored work in the Southland and the recommendation^ for the
Northern sections of our countp, .
In regards to the organization of the earl\ work in the Southland.
the committees that were referred to as the "colored" committees
were more or less "rubber stamp" committees. For example, when
I was an evangelist and a representative of the colored work in the
Florida Conference, we would meet on the same day as the Execu-
tive Committee; that was the committee made up of all the white
representatives of the conference. They would meet generally
speaking, in the morning and would make their decisions. These
decisions not only pertained to the operation of the white work, but
also the operation of the black work. Then, in the afternoon, the
a)lored committee would meet. We would consider the recommen-
dations that were made by the E\ecuti\e Committee, and uith ven.
few exceptions, we would appro\e the dccision> ih.it were made
prior to our meeting.
You will recall that in the recommendation that was made at the
General Conference Session in Francisco, it \sas requested that the
General Conference Committee select one of our rcpreseniali\es to
fill the office of secretary of the department. The reason for this ac-
tion was due to the fact that Elder Peters only served one year. A
crisis had arisen particularly in the East because one of our great
leaders, J.K. Humphrey, had left the mainstream of Adventist and
hundreds of black Adventists joined him in the organization of a
Black conference. Elder Peters resigned from his office in the Gen-
ral Conference, went to New York, and under the influence of his
powerful, spirit-filled preaching was able to reclaim many of these
members. At this time Elder F.L. Peterson, who later became a vice
president of the General Conference, was elected to succeed Elder
Notice that the statement also said that the secretary be located
in Washington, D.C. having his headquarters in the General Con-
ference office. 1 stated earlier that when Elder Green was elected in
1918, he should not have his office in the General Conference, and
this time the brethren were requesting that the Negro Department
head have his office at the General Conference rather than having
it in his home. There was strong resistance to a black man even in
1929 and 1930 having his office at our headquarters in Washing-
We now come to the Autumn Council of 1941, and at this coun-
cil Elder G.E. Peters, who was again serving as the departmental
secretary, gives his report. I would like to quote from his historic
"Brother Chairman, I believe that we are all convinced that the
Negro Department through the years has made wonderful ad-
vancement and achievement. Just think, we have grown from 900
believers in 1909 to 14,537 at the close of 1940. In the year 1912,
the tithe receipts were $16,323 from the colored constituency, and
during the last five years, or from 1936-1940 inclusive, our colored
believers paid in tithe $1,1 12,000. During the same period, mission
offerings were $703,000 as compared with $3,000 in the year 1912.
Surely when taking all things into consideration, the colored Sev-
enth-day Adventist is more of an asset than a liability."
Elder Peters continues, "Relative to our present organization, it
has been proven that in many instances in foreign fields it paid in
large dividends when greater responsibility was placed on native
workers. That role holds true when it comes to the Negro work in
North America. It is obvious that the colored work made decided
advancement when greater and larger duties were placed on their
It is particularly interesting to note the progress of our book
work in certain Union territories where responsibility of leadership
has been placed upon colored men. I believe that more will be ac-
complished as we broaden the scope of organization for the Negro
And, then, he referred back to 1929 to certain events that oc-
curred. "It will be remembered that some years ago our colored
brethren gave study to its work and its development as associated
with this great movement, and the question of Negro Conferences
was introduced. You see, that was back in 1929. As I mentioned
earlier, CM. Kinney had raised the issue in 1889. The idea was
that these conferences would operate under the guidance of the
Union General Conference as do all other local conferences. It was
reasoned by the colored brethren that just as prosperity attended
the work when Negro churches were established, with Negro lead-
ership in both the North and South for the furtherance of their own
work, and such a development brought added souls and means to
the cause of God, such a forward step with greater responsibility by
Negro leaders who are versed with their own native psychology
and means for the advancement of the cause of God and finishing
of the work.
This move was not considered wise at that time, so there was
then offered what was considered a most desirable substitute plan
of organization by a committee of both black and white. This orga-
nization framed by the Plans Committee was adopted and became
a resolution of the General Contcrcncc He then referred to the ac-
tions of the Autumn Council ol the General Conference Com-
mittee of 1929 in Columbus, Ohio, uhich concerned itself with the
organization in the Southern Lnion lc\cN, the.se ad\isor\ com-
mittees, and the appointment of a leading Black nunisier as a sec-
retary or an evangelist and the same relationship m the Northern
areas with the exception that the man vunild scr\e on the Union
level as a member of the H\ecuu\e Committee, and on the local
level as a member of the local conference commutee.
Elder Peters further stated, "Brother Chairman, the plan u hich 1
referred to has been carried out in lull in certain I nion Conler-
ences, but carried out onl\ m part in other L mon ierriior\. The
Union Conferences that are now opcraiiiii; the plan, that are not
fully carrying out their resolution. 1 am sure base not held back
willfully or from anv lack ol' interest in the colored \vork. Some-
times in changing leaders the new leaders, m taking up the respon-
sibility may not have had an opportunit\ to learn about said reso-
lutions, its background, and its merit- '"
"Our colored brethren ha\e waited lor \ears tor the lulllUing of
this plan in total. Workers and lait\ .ire both asking whs has this
vote of the General Conference not been tulh carried out. Thiriy
one years ha\e passed since the department wa- tlrsl organi/ed
with the employment of a full-time general secretary. As has been
already stated, we numbered then only 900, but someone had a vi-
sion and the vision brought results. We now number 15,000 and
the advancement merits a full-time secretary in each Union Con-
ference to spend his entire time in the duties outlined by the Au-
tumn Council of 1929."
Elder Peter continued, "My plea for the perfecting and strength-
ening of the department, I would also suggest that the negro Advi-
sory Committee be called together in 1942 and every two years
thereafter. Sufficient time should be given to discuss plans and rec-
ommendations for the development of the colored work with its
own pecuUar problems. Personally, I believe the present organiza-
tion known as the Negro Department can be made a more ideal
system or organization for the Negro work of North America, if
fully carried out and broadened. It is in harmony with the Spirit of
Prophecy; and in every conference where it is put into full opera-
tion, there will be greater and larger returns to the cause of God.
As it is, we are doing well, but we can do better. To put this organi-
zation full force where it is not now operating, will of course call for
expenditures of a few more dollars, but even from a business view-
point, we must spend money to make money. It must not be that
children of this world are the only generation wiser than the chil-
dren of Ught.
"In closing. Brother Chairman, I ask for a continued confidence
in the consecrated abihty of Negro leaders. Give us a fair chance, a
greater responsibility with our own people, and I assure you there
will be yet greater results in the building up of the work of God as
related to the great Advent Movement where all races should stand
together, united and true for the completing of the task committed
to us by our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ."
Let me refer to three significant statements that Elder Peters
made in his report: (1) His appeal for confidence in the consecrated
ability of Negro leaders. (2) His appeal for a fair chance of greater
responsibility with our own people. (3) There will be greater results
in the building up of the work of God as related to the great Ad-
I wonder what would have been the state of affairs today in our
church as related to the development of our work among the blacks
in the area of leadership and participation if the actions taken had
been implemented. Recommendations are not worth the paper
they are printed on unless they are carried out. For example, in
1929, the same appeal Elder Peters made in 1941 was made by our
Church school group; IJctroit, Michigan 1957.
black leaders. But the church turned a deaf ear, and at that time,
several of our leading black pastors left the orgnized church. J.K.
Humphrey organized the first black conference; churches were es-
tablished in America and in the West Indies. And there were other
conditions existing in the church organization which placed the
black believer and the black pastor in a position of inferiority. Now
here are some examples which I think are very important to an un-
derstanding of the subject we are endeavoring to present.
I have already referred to the operation of the committees, par-
ticularly in the Southland, and how it was more or less a "rubber
stamp" committee. Then secondly, there was inequality of wages
and allowances. For example, a black minister in Atlanta with a
church of 500, with 15-20 years of service, would have a salary less
than that of a young white pastor with a church of one hundred
members. I can recall that when 1 first went to the Southwestern
Union as union evangelist, one of the first prerequisites I laid down
was the fact of equality of salaries. That was in 1946.
Thirdly, there were limited funds for church and school build-
ings. Surprisingly, very few churches were built for black congrega-
tions during the years prior to regional conferences. There were
limited funds for evangelism and very little equipment of any kind.
During this time, our black loaders were forced \o attend segrega-
ted meetings held by the church; that is. annual councils.
I remember an experience back in the early 30's of the .•\uiumn
Council in Fort Worth, Texas, where our black leaders had lo u^e
the service elevator; of course, many refused to do that, and the)
were branded as agitators, etc. During those days Seventh-da\ .Ad-
ventist blacks were not accepted in our hospitals and sanitanums.
The sanitarium in Washington did not permit blacks to enter until
1940. Prior to that, there was a vcfn traiiic experience where a
woman who was very ill was refused admittance and died later on
her way to Freedmen's Hospital. Blacks could not eat at the Re-
view and Herald until the earU W5()'s. W hen Elders Peter and Pe-
terson had their otTice in the General Conference, thev could not
even have their meals at the cafeteria. It' uas in the 1960"s bet'ore
the largest white Seventh-day .Adventist church in Detroit \\ould
acx-ept its first black member. And, toda\ . a Black Se%enih-da\ .Ad-
ventist is not welcomed in the white church in Mobile. .Alabama.
So you can see how the trend of segregation wuhin the church
continued, even though in the 50's manv other churches had
opened their door, to sav nothing o\ the change of climate in the
sp«.irts and in the other areas of societ\. Consequenth . on the eNe of
Lake Region Conference-First teacher's institute, January 6-8, 1946, Chicago, Illinois.
historic years 1944 and 1955, racial segregation was still the policy,
though it was unwritten in the Seventh-day Adventist Church. And
this condition led our church to its vital historic compromise that
was the organization of regional conferences.
When I think of the historic event, I am reminded of the words
of Ellen G. White-"until the Lord shows us a better way." This
phrase is lifted from the statement made by Sister White in Vol-
ume 9, pp. 206, 207, written at the turn of the century. It says in
essence that because of the tensions between the races, because of
the rigors of Jim Crowism, white and black believers would be wise
to build and operate separate facilities, and that this is to be done
"until the Lord shows us a better way." It was for these very rea-
sons that we made reference that Black Adventism was organized
into separate local jurisdiction with black leaders. The meeting to
organize conferences was in Chicago in 1944. I quote from the
minutes of that historic meeting.
Whereas the present development of our work among the col-
ored people in North America had resulted under the signal bless-
ings of God in the Establishment of some 233 churches with some
17,000 members, and whereas it appears that a different plan of or-
ganization for our colored membership would bring further great
advance in soul-winning endeavor, therefore we recognized, that
colored conferences sustain the same relation to their respective
union conferences as to their white conferences.
Some leaders who played key roles in the establishment of black
conferences were G.E. Peters, J.H. Wagner, L.H. Bland, J.G. Da-
sent, J.G. Thomas, H.W. Kibble, T.M. Rowe and W.W. Fordham.
It took us one whole century— from 1844 to 1944— to reach a
membership of 17,000 in the Black constituency. In the 30 years
since the organization of conferences, we have rocketed from
17,000 to 100,000.
In 1929, at the Autumn Council Session in Columbus, Ohio, El-
der Peters made the appeal which I referred to earlier, "Give us a
fair chance and I assure you there will be yet greater results in the
building up of the work of God as related to the great Advent
We thank God that the chance was finally given to us in 1945 to
demonstrate what God could do through consecrated black lead-
Educational Institute Cleveland, Ohi
ership. The record of progress speaks ever so eloquently for itself.
Now the question is "What of the future?" Let us remember that
black conferences were brought into existence because of social
conditions within America and our church conditions which we
hope will change. Their presence will be a reminder of weakness,
not of principle, but of practice within our organization. And fur-
ther, let it be known that black conferences were accepted by the
black faithful and loyal constituency of this church because it was
the most practical way of evangelizing the millions of black Ameri-
cans. We cannot predict the future. The Lord may yet reveal to us a
better way; however, for many of our black leaders that better way
was regional conferences, and even today there is still the need for
refinement of our organization in order to reach the millions, ap-
proximately 25 million, in our cities.
This thought was articulated in 1969 when the Commission on
Black Unions met in Washington, D.C. and as a result of that
meeting the church leadership sensed its failure to provide lead-
ership opportunities on higher levels; I am referring to Union Con-
ferences. Consequently, today, on most of our union levels you will
find black officers. The question of how best our church can meet
the need of its black constituents and perspective black converts in
the face of the growing racial unrest in our cities is a perplexing
one. For example, the unparalleled growth and influences of the
Black Muslims in our cities is a real challenge to the preachins of
the Third Angel's Message b\ the black Se\enth-dav .AdventiNt
Church. Therefore, we need your pravers and sup[x>rt. tor the
black Seventh-day Adventist Church is the only remaining \Mtness
to Adventism in our cities, for as \ou know, most of our churches
have fled to the suburbs.
Therefore, for the present and the t'oreseeable future, we believe
that regional conferences have come upon the stage of action "for
such a lime as this", and its goal under God is to finish the \vork
and to hasten the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ.
\\ .W. Fordham. Director
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"Acquaint now thyself with Him and
be at peace."
Job, thousands of years ago, gave to
mankind the answer to the calamity,
furor, and unhappiness that exists
within our breasts.
While Oakwood is based on reli-
gious principles and its foundation is
built in the word of God, it profits us
nothing unless these same traits are in
our lives. Therefore, we must work at
having a religion that possesses us,
rather than possessing a rehgion.
Elder Ward, our spiritual leader, holds tightly the rule of faith.
On Sabbath we're seen in great numbers.
Dr. Eva B. Dykes 1st black woman in America to receive the Ph.D.
Frtrsidcni of ihc college, Dr Calvin
Rfxk Ijghis ihc wa\
Oakwood's beginning may be traced to 1895,
when the General Conference Association sent a
three-man educational committee authorized to
spend $8,000 to select a site in the South for a
school for Negro youth. These were G.A. Irwin,
who as director of the Southern District of the
General Conference had developed a special in-
terest in the Negroes; O.A. Olsen, president of the
General Conference and H. Lindsay, who had as-
sisted in the founding of Battle Creek College.
On the way southward they stopped at the
home of L. Dyo Chambers in Chattanooga, Ten-
nessee (where they met Anna Knight, one whose
name was later connected with the education of
Negroes in the South for more than a half cen-
tury), and then went on to Alabama. In Hunts-
ville, where the population was then about 15,000
they learned of a 360-acre farm, about five miles
northwest of the town, which they inspected. After
the committee made its report, Olsen and Irwin
returned to Huntsville to negotiate for the land.
With them was M.E. Olsen, son of O.A. Olsen.
As the committee began looking over the land,
Irwin said that he felt deeply impressed that this
was the very place they were looking for, and the
others concurred. As Irwin and Olsen walked un-
der the 65 towering oaks that stood on what was to
become the heart of the campus, they decided that
the place should be called Oakwood.
In striking contrast to the symmetrical appear-
ance of the giant oaks were the mass of brush and
briers and low-hanging hmbs a few- yards to the
south; the dilapidated manor house and west of it
the well choked with debris, the old leaning barn
and the row of nine cabins, all falling apart— four
ordinary log cabins and five built of squared cedar
logs planted upright in the ground and clap-
Among those who began clearing the land after
it was purchased by the General Conference was
George W. Warsaw, who was born on the land
when it was known as Irwin's farm, and who oper-
ated a small nursery almost to the time of his
death in 1957. In a personal interview he de-
scribed the old cotton gin and the nine cabins.
Before the arrival of the first principal. Colon
M. Jacobs of Iowa, in April, 1896, J.J. Mitchell of
California and Grant Adkins of Atlanta were in
charge of the property, and two students (George
Graham of Birmington and Grant Royston of
Vicksburg) were on the grounds. The men who
composed the school board, in addition to Jacobs
were O.A. Olsen and G.A. Irwin, both of whom
came and in their overalls worked to prepare the
site. Jacobs added to the Old Mansion a room 18
by 44 feet, to be used as the kitchen and dining
hall. In November, a new two-story building was
ready, the first floor used for classrooms and the
second floor, as a boy's dormitory.
Oakwood Industrial School. With four buildings
and a property valued at $10,157, with four teach-
ers, and fewer than 24 students Oakwood Indus-
trial School opened its doors on November 16,
1896. The faculty consisted of H.S. Shaw, A.F.
Hughes, Hattie Andre and the principal.
This photograph was taken in 1905 of one of nine slave cabins that still stood on the old Iruin plantation when it
was purchased in 1895.
Oakw(;<jd ((jllegc is the outgrowth of ihe Oak-
wo(xl Industrial Schocjl, f<junded 1896 b\ the Gen-
eral Qjnfercnce of Seventh-day Adventists. After a
number of years of successful operation the name
was changed to Oakw(x;d Manual Training Schocjl.
n 1917, two years of college work were offered, and
the school was known as OakwcKjd Junior College, In
the spring of 1943, ancjther forward step was taken
by the institution when it was advanced to the status
of a senior ujllege. Since that time it has been known
a.s Oakwood College.
The institution is owned and operated b\ the Cjen-
eral Conference of S.D.A. as a cc^llege h^r Christian
Oakwood College is accredited b\ the Southern
As.s(x;iation of Colleges and Schools and is approved
by the Seventh-day Advenlist Bnard wt RcHcnls
Oakwood builds its offerings around the philos-
ophy that "true education is more than the pur-
sual of a certain course of study. It means more
than the preparation for the Ufe that now is. It is
the harmonious development of the physical, the
mental, and the spiritual powers. It prepares the
student for the joy of service in this world, and for
the higher joy of wider service in the world to
-Education, p. 13.
In harmony with this philosophy of education,
the administration and faculty of Oakwood Col-
lege have defined its objectives as follows:
The purpose of the spiritual and religious in-
struction at Oakwood College is to reflect fully the
image of Jesus Christ through emphasis on the de-
velopment of character and talent, the nobility of
ambition, the keenness of perception with sound
judgement; so that the student is prepared to ren-
der unselfish service to God and man.
Consonant with the diMnc plan of edu-
cation, the College purpo>c> to develop in
its students certain atuuidcN and abilities
that are conducive lo indcpendeni and
cTeative thinking; lo turihcr acquaint
facts and principles of the niaior fields of
knowledge, together with a more in-
tensive concentration in one or more of
these fields. Oakwood seeks to help the
student to develop proficnc\ in the use of
the English language, to encourage an un-
biased altitude on controversial issues,
and to nioti\ate wnhui the student a per-
sistent and continuing intellectual
As an integral part of the total development of the stu-
dent, the College endeavors to develop in its youth desir-
able personalities, refined taste, and correct usage of the
social graces which will prepare them for participation in
social and recreational activities, and to understand and
respect persons of varied backgrounds and experiences.
The College seeks to help the student understand him-
self, to the end that he may make the maximum use of
whatever powers he has, both for his own and for the so-
cial good. While the student must learn the subjects that
are offered in curriculum, he must also find out about him-
self and how he may best fit into the social order.
The physical education program of the College attempts
to give an intelligent understanding of the standards which
govern the function and care of the body. It seeks also to
establish in the student a consistency in the observance of
habits and practices that engender maximum physical vi-
tality and health. Emphasis is placed on the proper use of
leisure time, either of some activity worthy of physical de-
velopment in some gymnastic enterprise given under
:! t ^
Oakwood College endea\orN lo leach its
students the dignit) ot" labor, to train them in
practical work which uill enable them to
cope with lite Mtuations, to impart Nkill and
knowledge in certain \ocation> best >uited to
the student's interest> and aptitudes, and to
offer professional and preprofesMonal
courses which will aid the students in their
choice of a \ocaiion.
A VISION OF HIM
I have climbed a hill at the break of day
And have turned my face to the sun;
And watched in the sky as its glory spread
At the start of its daily run.
I have stood beneath a dripping oak
As the sky gave forth its dew;
And watched as the grass drank in the rain
And the earth and the oak did too.
I have stood alone on a windswept plain
And have seen the earth meet sky;
And watched as the two, each in its own way,
To the other seemed to die.
I have stood at dark when stars were lit
And the heavens blossomed bright;
And watched as the birds all hid their heads
From the whispers of the night.
But whether I face the sun at dawn.
Or the plain, or the stars at night,
I know that God, the Maker of all.
Is the one that gives the sight.
And I dare not let a day go by
Without a vision of Him.
For what profit a man, if he sees the world
And the sight of His Maker is dim.
Walter T. Rea
Through Fourscore Years
During its 80 years (the biblical fourscore that sug-
gests strength) Oakwood has seen much and been in-
volved in much. The changes from reconstruction south
to the era of the mushrooming repressive jim-crow leg-
islation. The painful, almost glacial climb of Black
America up to judicial/ litigation ladder. The age of
confrontation when the wall of de Jure segregation, Jeri-
cho-like, came down. Oakwood has not existed in a
During these fourscore years the work among the
Black American has been bound up with Oakwood. No
other institution in Adventism has taken upon itself or
had thrust upon it such singular responsibility. In fact,
there was very httle work among America's largest mi-
nority before Oakwood. The founding of Oakwood was
the watershed event, or to change the figure, Oakwood
has been matrix and spawning ground of men and
Oakwood has also been witness to and, involved in
the development and maturation of the Seventh-day
Adventist Church. Its coming of age, exercising its pecu-
liar function as eyes, ears, barometer of the times and
window to the world, Oakwood has been a blessing.
What other institution has had such a positive influence
on the psychological and social orientation of the parent
During the insuing years, Oakwood has become the
institutionalized spirit of a people who felt at home in
its shadows. Oakwood has been chief molder of Afro-
American Adventism-its elhos. its central core. The
two are inseparable.
In times of racial ferment and change. Oakwood's
children like sons of Issachare wise mterpreiers of the
times, gave faithful council and guidance. Each forw ard
move taken after careful examination of this issue,
brought strength to the work. It was so in 1909 (organi-
zation of the General Conference Negro Department).
1919 (when the first black was appointed secretary of
the department) and 1930 (when regional conferences
were organized as "a better way" to prosecute the work
among America's largest minority). These were periods
of intense unrest and afitation. when the plight of black
Americans was brought dramatically to the attention of
the general public. .And while the world does not set the
church's agenas. the church is challenged to examine its
agendas in the light of what is happening m the world.
During the ensuing years, Oakwood has become the
On the eve of .America's third cenlur\. Oakwtx->d cele-
brates her own past; eight decades of history rich with
varied experiences, sunlight and shadow, mountain top
and valley. But the past is prologue. The kingdom of
God will not remain on the drawing board of prophecs.
so Oakwood's faithful sons and daughters have been
taught to believe. Thev rise up to face that glorious dav
and to hasten its advent by greater dedication and com-
mittment to Christ's global mission.
Registration The Beginning and The Beginning of
an End. A Profile in Pictures
^ IJU r\ /^
In iy/:)f; Sixteen sludenii reg;-acrcd lo
j-'o to I he Humsville School". 80
vears later after more than six thou-
sand Alumni, over one thousand stu-
dents were registered fall quarter 1976.
Just like so many years ago they
came with anticipation, not knowing
exactiv v-hat t(^ expect or what they
might find, f here were no long lines in
1896, there were no exorbitant tuition
ees. Registration was not a all day af-
tair. registration wasn't a reunion of
(j|d classes, registration was not a fash-
Kjn shov. There was no need for a ma-
jor adviscjr because the curriculum uas
excessive]) limited We ha\e come a
Freshman Orientation Finale
This story begins with a trip and ends with a
ndle light ceremony. On a distant shore of an
island far into the sea; in a small village in the
country of Ethiopia; on the western beaches of the
the people infested urban inner city of N.Y., Chi-
cago, Los Angeles; yes even Atlanta and Phila-
jet age has
ral community that might exist anywhe
re in an
country. A mother can be seen giving la
instructions like "don't forget to study
bath school lesson", "here is a tooth brus
h. be sur
to buy some tooth paste.
warm atmosphere of home and family. Others
with the happy thought of escaping family conflict
and maturing pains embark upon an adventurous
escape. Upon arriving the recurring thoughts be-
gin-"will I be academically successful", "will they
like me," "what will I major in," "Oh! I wish I was
back with my family."
The family waves as the car speeds away, old friends give you
a kiss and a hug. Everybody promises to write. Some students
travel as far as 7,000 or more miles to make this date with des-
tiny. No matter how they travel, like all freshmen they live in
uneasy expectation. The first objective, find a room and a room-
mate, and if one arrived early he has the opportunity to carry his
luggage and maybe even his parents first to this room, and then
another, upstairs and downstairs, checking the view, question-
ing: is it close enough to the bathroom? will it be big enough?
how much closet space? Do I hke the curtains? is the furniture
Axe the mattresses soft? But of course this opportunity is only
afforded those few who arrive early. For others, it is just a mat-
ter of being assigned a room by the resident Dean.
Organist Hemdon Spillman
The date is Sunday, Oct. 12, 1975. The place,
' .hby Auditorium. A new and steady shinning
;ht radiated from the man of genius, Herndon
„pillman. An introduction is made and after-
ward the Oakwood College audience awaits
with anticipation the performance of this re-
nown artist. After completing the explanation
of his program format, he cooly, expertly slides
onto the bench which sits in front of the Rodger
concert touring organ. As the music fills the au-
ditorium there is no doubt of the talent of this
A native of Alabama, Herndon Spillman is a
frequent recitalist throughout the U.S. He has
performed on numerous campuses and for
many American Guide of Organists chapters.
He is engaging and articulate in concert, eager
and able to communicate to his audiences and
to lead them in to the awesome and beautiful
music he so masterfully performs.
At the conclusion of the Lyceum program,
Oakwood College had witnessed that awesome
and beautiful music and rewarded Spillman
with a heartfelt standing ovation. A reward for
a job well done.
Frances Walker Pianist
The lights went out over the audience. The dim stage lights sil-
houeted a grand piano. If that was not enough, there was not a
hundred and fifty people present in a 600 seat auditorium in atten-
dance at the beginning of the program.
Although lights were dim and the crowd uas Miiall, this did not
subtract any of the extraordinar\ skill that triiK beloiibis to Frances
Her biographical sketch testifies ot her outstanding academic
achievements, which have earned her respect and admiration.
Presently, she serves at Rutgers Uni\ersit\ and is Pianist-in-Resi-
dence at Lincoln University.
She has performed at Lincoln Center. Times Hall and recently at
Washington National Galler\ of An. Her work has also been ac-
claimed by discriminating audiences in Lngland. Gcrman\ and the
It might be said that the United Student
Movement at Oakwojd College evolved ver\
slowly, but once expan.sion commenced it blos-
s<jmed rapidly. It was in the latter part of
March 1976 on a warm sunny afternoon that
Elder Walter W. Fordham, class of "34", in an
mformal conversati(jn uncloaked a view of
changes effected by a G(x] directed L'.S.M. It
was between the years 1930-32 that the U.S.M.
of O.C. initiated m(jst important changes in its
function as a student organization. This event
has burned an impression intfj the pages of His-
tory that time cannot erase. The stop, has been
expanded in the introducKjp. sectujn of the his-
In 1975-1976 L.S.M. began its preparation
shortly after elections the year before. The
Dean of Students, Claude Thomas gave major
assistance to the newly elected officers enabling
them to increase their leadership abilities and
more effectively to handle their responsibility
to the student body. He conducted workshops
for the U.S.M. officers on varied subjects di-
rected toward group facilitation, leadership.
and crisis intervention.
Clifton Jessup spent a considerable amount of the
summer time involved in the active operations of the
U.S.M. So did Wilbur Young, Yearbook editor, Joseph
Okike, treasurer, and Colleen Boyd, Asst. Secretary. A
considerable amount of time was spent on job training
and pre planning so that students would have a more
effective functioning U.S.M.
In preparation for the U.S.M. emphasis week it was
pointed out by the President, George Valentine that we
needed a slogan that would exemphfy the character of
this year's U.S.M. As a result of this thurst "The Door Is
Open" was selected from an advertisement found in one
of the major black career journals by Vice President
The back drop was prepared b\ Gransille
Jones, public relations consultant, of the L .S.M,
International Student Organization (ISO), under
the direction of Farrel Jones, executed the parade
of flags representing more than 21 countries that
make up our student body. Alma Blackmon's
choir sang Great God Almighty and Hulk Him L'p
for the Freshman class and new students. This was
the first opportunity for them to hear the .\eloians
on home turf It was the fear of the President of
U.S.M. that anything after the choirs perfor-
mance, would be anticlimatic. He ua.N right. W in-
ton Ford, Dean of Men administered the oath of
ofllce to George N'alentine, President of I S.M..
Dean Dorthv Hollowav. Dean of women, admin-
istered the oath of otTice to Clifton Jessup. general
Vice President of L'.S.M. Winton Forde also ad-
ministered the oath of office in the absence of
Claude Thomas. Dean of Students, to the remain-
ing otTicers of L'.S.M. .A brass ensembled directed
by Stanley Ware, instructor in music, made their
The Changing Of The Guard
II IS 1963, Oakwood has been a (ully accrediicd senior
a)llege since 1959. G.J. Millet has been president for
nine years. The a^llege faculty and administration, as
well as the campus have developed rapidly; the number
of administrau^rs and faculty has increased. So have the
course offerings. Many (jf the older buildings have been
renovated, in addition to a new physical education facil-
ity, an up to date men's dormitory, a contemp^jrary
science complex, and an ultra modern library and labo-
ratory school. With these accomplishments President
Millet steps out of leadership at Oakwcxjd to assume
other important duties. Time moves quickly on to 1975.
and President Rock is granted leave to enhance his aca-
demic qualifications. Once again Dr. G.T. .Millet is des-
ignated as the man to serve as president in the interim.
»^ M^ »"»*. 1 -iTi
"Suffer little children to come unto me for of
such is the kingdom of heaven "
Storyhour is conducted by a group of Oak-
wood Students who really believe in this pas-
sage, as a part of the outreach program. God's
love and sacrifice is taught to them through the
medium that every little child enjoys the most;
It is the aim o\' the stor\ hour band to impress
upon the minds oi" these children how wonderful
their Savior is and how much he loves and cares
tor them. It also encourages the child to see God
as his hero. He is better than Nuperman or captain
kid or even shazam and a lot ot' other ficticious
heros who fade aua\ uiih tune. The\ are laushi
that God is theirs lor ioda\. tomorrow and
The stor\ hour band also believes in the passage
of scripture that sa\s "and a little child shall lead
them." How wonderful it uould be if the seed
planted in the minds of these children grew to
natuniN. and flowered out to capture their par-
ents, fanuh and
OMEGA SIGMA PSI
When else can someone show his personal magnitude of fool-
ishness except during the Omega Sigma Psi Initiation? Prospec-
tive members, males and females, kooks and clowns, join to-
gether in the parade of Shenanigans to outshine the other in
sport, in jest, and plain old fun. When the bell chimes its last
note on jocularity of the behavioral science organization and the
last caper has been pulled, the newly elected members join the
others atop Monte Sano. They retreat to an atmosphere of song,
laughter, and love in the natural setting of God's handiwork.
They recapture the spirit of unity in God in whom they live, and
move, and have their being.
r«ii^^ ^ 'f
► r '«
Many students had long-range plans of going home
or to some friends hideaway for the quarter break like
good old R and R (Rest and Recuperation). Some dear
souls, for whatever the reason, took their break right
here at the Oaks; sleeping all day. visiting fish ponds in
the community, or maybe working, trying to make a few
bucks with which to get back in school the next quarter.
It just so happened that the 1975 school year's year-
book, though drastically late, arrived on campus during
this holiday. The question arose at the Executive
U.S.M. meeting-How will we distribute the '75
Consequently, it was decided s>.c"d hj\c searbook Mt:-
ning parly in the cafeteria- Arthur Huniphre) was our
projectionist. We laughingly regressed through Roadrun-
ner and the Three Stooges that was followed b\ a jo\ous
frolic of fun and games. The faces of these people express
a happy release of tension. Loneliness, disgust, smiles,
laughter, contact, nobodv knows me, and man\ more ex-
pressions tell us e.\actl\ how n was
^ ■*% ^^
While. WUIis. and coopwood trying to relocate the good oU dayi.
can often cloud our monumenb to the past.
Daughter and Molher-Don't they look good?
guest choiis for Alumni Weekend.
Aeolians go to Dayton.
On April 30, 1976, 70 young people, 3 chaperones, and Ms. Blackmon boarded 1
bus and 3 vans. Their destination was Dayton, Ohio to sing for Allegheney Confer-
ence-Youth Congress. They would sing for divine worship and a sacred concert
that Sabbath evening.
"It was drizzling when we left Huntsville, but when we arrived in Dayton, the sun
was shining bright. We had a few mishaps with one bus losing its way, but because
we were in God's care we made it there safely.
For Divine Worship we sang, "Let All the Nations", "In His Care-o", and "Light
Divine". For the evening concert the first half consisted of Randall Thompson's
"Peacable Kingdom"; during intermission Michele Cleveland rendered two selec-
tions: "In the Lord", and "All the World is Mine". The second half of the concert
was music by James Weldon Johnson. Thank you for your kindness and fellowship,
and for making it an enjoyable Spirit-filled weekend.
Ladies and gentlemen, the President and Vice-President of the U.S.M.
Now Al, cut that smack out
J - ■ .' '
rf V ^ ^
1 ? ^
Some people ju-sl can'l handle being photographed.
It must be 3:30
We passed Barham's final!
But Ted, I don't want your kiss
" . r^*s
-J. N V
Why Delores I didn't know I didn't know you could be so quiet.
don't turn your face from mc like . . . Green if you won"i I will
Confucius say, "When hungry— eat." ■'.'*■' * ;«7
Ha, ha, ha, tee, hee hee.
Wi^ndc-r what ihjs stuff ta.stes like
Are you kidding?
I guess after we finish here, I'll go get some sleep
Look Ma! No cavities!
You can join us, but it's gonna cost you some money
If I had a hammer, I'd try to play it.
StjmchKxJy's takmy mv picture
If you people want punch, bring your cups, please
This is delightfully refreshing
Munch a bunch
Go on, go on, go on, go on, go on, g(
I wonder who else is
Dead eye Walter spots his man, but can he get the ball to him
Look at O.J. Tony, he's really handling that ball.
Hey buddy, li ihal as far as you can
Champion Flagball Team
Michael Morgan, led his team to an 8-1 record.
Smith, this is not gymnastics, it's basketball
Jujrip hall Oo' Jump ball, Oo! Jump
Harris from L.A. Rams is at it again
Wilbur on his way to beat somebody in Tennis!
Jack Doggette almost didn't make it
over this alumnist of Oakwood
I Ji * jt
Take carclul aim and hil thai round tinny in the air iku''H«
Very good swing Dcbra, but next time hit the ball!!
Do you know who these legs belong to?
". . . and I dare you to hit just one my wav
Greg swings with all of his might
Look at that form of
Jerry Foster. Too bad
the batter put the ball in
«i^ii^^ ., -^'^-V
That's right, keep it going.
It finally makes the air.
Paul and Johnn) seem lo be
racmg wiih the baJJ.
^ *».-V jsv* iiiL. . _iO s
Who said there was nt) fun in Soccer.
You're really truckin' there, Miranda
Crisp, cool air, tingling against the skin, streams of
sweaty beads racing from the neck and armpits, a
normal face twisted and pressed like clay, by a per-
sistant thought into a fixture of frenzy. This is but a
glimpse of an athlete in action. Whatever your game
is determine to be more than a vicarious participator.
Dig into the subsequent sports pages and find more
than entertainment. Find the personahty of "ruff and
tuff athletes giving it all they've got.
Sam is the first human hydroplane
Some days I just don't feel like doing anything
Hey! Come back here the start gun hasn't sounded yet.
Our ladies at O.C. are ver^ aih-
leiic as you can sec.
Hey look Daryl, would you move over some.
Henry hands the baton to Keith and he takes off like a jet.
Now for the BIG foot race with Allan, Donald and Edward,
Now gentlemen no fighting, or
hugging, or kissing, well just stand
in the line right!
Oh Steve, may I have your autograph too?
5 ii ...-.Ji-.:-?!?^
Tcm. put Nour tongue back inio
a tow spectators dissectmi a t'ellow spectator!
1 wonder who these two are racing against
Well, here they are on their way
But she ended up with Ted tor the rac
A black hawk coming in for a landing
Kolowa, frozen by a Canon F-1 at 2,000/1 sec. F-8
% ......-W ^ ,,
I got a chicken in my blood
Terri Barron blows by
Smoke on down, Omerror D.i
Mich.K-1, did vou stop tho \v.Uv.-h tn iimo!
A slugger at bat.
Say, you're going the wrong way!
We can't believe our eyes.
not iirnc Ui feed the thickens vei.
Hank I'm running this next race just for you
Arthur knows the race is not to the swift but to those who endure
^'*M i K
Tell me, where is my competition?
Toyia turns on the steam while Terri starts the Barron burning
could do this all da
Dean is geltinti old I'hc juico is sUnvini; down
r« ; //uis n WiUl iircT /^ufleris
*■. \y.*f¥K9£'. •• ii
Andre^^^. .Arthur L
.Andrews. Bobb\ L.
CartN* right. Constance
Chnsiopher. Lie* ells t>
•A • I
Gam berg. Ellen
Hendrix. An a
Jones. .Ms a
^!!^t^ €^ O^ f% t^
Richards. Kenneth L
Samatar. Ha»a .Ally
Sharpe. Shelia A.
Smith. Ora L
'4 i '-ci
Wilson, Idella P
Wils^m, Jesse Jr
W mbome, S«.>n\a
^ oung. Hadassah
Billiard, \ aiu-ss.
•*^\A^ ' \
--:,» ^) ,.^/ t'-:^
Gu Hedge, Patty L.
\^U^KKm0'' - /^^
^^^^ ^^^^ ^_,^ •s**'?^^^
B^^' ^HiP ^
c^ ^ €i
Sessor, Stanley E.
S locum b, Joan
Stanford, Martha A.
Thomas, Arthor Dean
Toyloy, Luther F.
Wells, John L.
White, Debora H.
Martin. Kaihy Ann
B.S. Business Education
B.S. Speech Pathology
Samuel Fadare, Jr.
■■^-5iSsr JibC •'>>»« it I '-*.v
( / -'K \
B.A. Th -■
Teacher Johnson, Jr.
William Penick. Ill
.S. Elementary Education
Emmitt Slocumb. Jr.
Doctor Smith, Jr.
Tern Denise White
B.S. Business Administration
Candidates For Degrees May 30, 1976
SAMUEL ADEWOLE ADIGUN DAN I Y AN
Business Administration, Psychology
IGBOKWE OKO IGBOKWE
Elementary Education, Music
JOYCE LYNETTE KNIGHT
DANIEL LEROY HILL
BARBARA ANN WINFIELD
ESTHER JUANITA ALLEYNE
ANDRE KEITH ARTIS
ARLENE F. BRAHAM
SAMUEL OLA FADARE, JR.
WENDY A.N. GRIFFITH
RONALD JEFFREY McCOWAN
ROBERT BERNARD THOMAS
ROBERT J. MACK
TERRI DENISE WHITE
LARRY D. WORD
VAN BENJAMIN RUNNELS
ALAN DEXTER SAMPSON
JANICE LYNN COOPWOOD
KEITH LAMOND MAJOR
EDWARD GEORGE BRYANT
CHRIS L. CARTWRIGHT
STEPHEN CARLTON FOSTER
CLIFTON R. JESSUP, JR.
GEORGE CEDRIC VALENTINE
CHERYL JOY AUSTIN
DEBRA DARLYNE WILSON
KAREN MARIE WRIGHT
MICHELE FLORENCE CLEVELAND
PAUL RICHARD CLEVELAND
WANDA GAIL HENRY
ALAN HENRY BARNUM
SHELLEEN NEDRA HICKS
DEADRA LORRAINE JOHNSON
GERALD HANSEL JONES
WILLIE SAMUEL PARKER
LESLIE LLOYD WHONDER
LYNN MARIE DAVIS
BARRY TYRONE WILKINS
FRANTZ R. BELHOMME
MARTIN OVERTON BENJAMIN
WILLL\M H. CHAVERS
CHARLES EDWARD CREECH
CRAIG ARTHUR DOSSMAN
THEODORE J. ELLERBE
RICHARD ARTHUR EVANS
DURANDEL LANE FORD
TERRY DEAN GILES
CALVIN URIAH HARRISON
PHILLIP JERALD JONES
JOHN S. NIXON
WILLL\M EDWARD PENICK, III
WINTLEY AUGUSTUS PHIPPS
STEPHEN P. RUFF
EMMITT SLOCUMB, JR.
DOCTOR SMITH, JR.
ONEL CREECH TUCKER
REGINALD WAYNE WASHINGTON
GIL F. WEBB
FRANK RONALD WILLIAMS
J. PHILIP WILLIAMS, II
STENNETT H. BROOKS
DENISE GAIL CORNELIUS
CHARLES H. DANIELS
FREDA ANN JAMES
ADA L. KIRBY
ANDREA KAY LODGE
AMEELA ANGELA McFARLAND
WAYNE EDWARD O'BANNON
JOSEPH UMEZUMBA OKIKE
ROBERT SAMUEL PRESSLEY
LARNEY RUTLEDGE, JR.
RONALD M. SMITH
LOLA B. WHITE
ELIZABETH ANN BRIGHT
OMERRER CONSALINA DAWSON, III
BARYL NADINE DESMUKES
VERA REGINA FULTON
VENITA MARL\ GOLDEN
HENRY CHARLES GRIFFITH
JANICE DL\NNE SHIELDS
DEBORAH RENITA WEBSTER
DONNA LYNN WILLL\MS
Food and Nutrition
CHIOMA EZINONA OKORO
JOYCELYN MUNROE PETERSON
BRUCE EDWARD WELLS
CYNTHL\ RENEE POWELL
BRENDA LOUISE COLE
DIEDRA YVONNE BROOKS
DELVIUS ELAINE WAGNER
Biology, Chemistry, Religion
CORLISS REGINA CLAIBON
English, Modem Language, Sec. Ed.
PHILLIP EDWARD GIDDINGS
Biology, Religion, Art
DOUGLAS E. WILLL\MS
ASSOCIATE IN SCIENCE
JENNIFER MARIE BAILEY
PAULINA ANNETTE BRENYA
DOROTHY JOY COLLINS
DEADRA LORRAINE JOHNSON
CYNTHIA LOUISE McCALL
DEBRA LYNN RAMEY
KEITH ADRAIN RUGLESS
MARLENE ANN SMITH
EDNA LEE WINFREY
ZAYNE URSLA HARDY
ROSEMARIE EMILY KING
TONI RENEE WHITE
Degrees July 17, 1976
MARY M. GIBSON
FARRELL SIMON JONES
ERROLL EZIAS REID
SAVONIA MARGONETTA McCLELLAN
Business Admin., Theology
BEVERLY G. ROBINSON
GEORGE WORTHWIN ST. JOHN
MARILYN GARNETT KAY WOOTEN
TEACHER SAVAN JOHNSON, JR.
JANET DENISE CARTER
MINERVA COLLEEN CARTER
GERALD FRANK WILKINS
CHERYL ANN ZIMMERMAN
SAMUEL MADISON PASCHAL, JR.
MARILYN JANET BLENMAN
GLENN LeROY D'ANDRADE
Summa Cum Laude
DEBORAH JEAN ST ARKS
Chfton R. Jessup
CLEOPHUS CHARLES MIMS
George Cedric Valentine
John S. Nixon
Diedra Yvonne Brooks
Samuel Adewole Adigun
ESTHER RUTH WHITE
Igbokwe Oko Igbokwe
JULES MICHAEL SIMEON, JR.
MARVELLA CORNELIA ALLEN SULLIVAN
MILTON CARTWRIGHT, JR.
Magna Cum Laude
CARLYLE GEORGE LANGHORN
JAMES GORDON LEE, JR.
Reginal Wayne Washmgton
CHARLES MILTON WILLIS
Arlene F. Braham
Joyce Lynette Knight
Coriiss Regina Claibon
ANGELA ELAINE BROWN
MICHAEL JOSEPH REED
Andrea Kaye Lodge
J, Philip Williams. II
LIZBETH DARLENE THORPE
Lola B. White
ROYE ANN BROWN
Food and Nutrition
CAROLYN JESSIE JACKSON
Alan Dexter Sampson
EDITH VANESSA DARBY
Gerald Hansel Jones
JAMESETTA SHARON GANTT
Debra Darl\Tie Wilson
JASHER CALEB MAIS
Deborah Jc;m Angela Starks
JACQUELINE GAIL MIDDLETON
Freda Ann J;imes
Barbara .Ann Wmt'ield
FREDA YVONNE NEAL
Leslie Llo\d W bonder
DeK^rah Renita \\ ebster
PATRICIA ANN WILLIAMS
Brenda Louise Cole
Frantz R. Belhomme
HENRY STANISLAUS BROWN
Michele F. Cleveland